Formative and Reflective Measurement Models
We compare formative and reflective measurement models in the context of structural equation models (SEM). The formative model is expressed as part of the structural regression equation. The identification status of the models is different, although they differ only in the direction of some arrows. It is shown, that the reflective model permits the identification of more parameters and requires less restrictions. Formative measurement models are recommended only under a strict theoretical necessity.
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